˹ѧͧ 60 ҨԸ ǧ ѹ 23 Ҥ 2543
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ѹ¹ 秨ѹ ЪѪ حѹ

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ѧһʡա ŧҹèҢͧ ѧҨ Ҫҹ è ѡ̷ջ
Ҿ¨ҡ˹ѧ Angkor the serenity of buddism ͧ Marc Riboud Ҿ˹ 78

ǻҳ 55 ˹ҡд A4
1
ѧûѵԷҧä (The Commercial Revolution) 㹤ʵȵɷ 16 û ԷԾ㹡á˹ҷͧԷʵԹͧâͧкͺع öѲҤ´ӢͧѴ仾 ѺûѺ¹¢ͧ˹ŧͧкǡѹ 㹷شû٭¤ҡ¢ͧ˹µԸջླ
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. 秨ѹ . Ѫ حѹ

㹡ǧ仢ͧšҵ ҹԶաͧšҡطʹҹ óպ͸ԺšиҵǴѹҡ ѧ Ǵšʵ 8 ѹ

ѡ̷ջ, šջ, šѭѵ, šջ, šѳҹ ⪵óѳ, ҡѻšѳҹѭѵ, šػѵšջ

͡ҡѧէҹӤѭͧЭҳ ͻóҴ¡ê ǧ Ѵ ¡ ѧһʡó ѧҨ Ҫҹ èҢ¤繮ա

ҹҴͧͧê觵ǧѴѧһʡա Шѡ̷ջբͧѧҨ ͹֡º§ѺкԴẺԷʵѹ šȹᵡҧҧʹ

ǤԷʵѹͧҵͧͧšͺ (the world around us) ҷ觡ͧšзҷշ軯ԺѵԵš¹͡ ѡɳзسФ价š¹͡ѡ ѧ鹡ջѹѺѵ觢ͧ¹͡ ͧ¹͡繵ºº ѧԴ鹢ͧ˹¹Ѻҧ ҡê ǧ Ѵ º§ҳͧѵǹ Դҧҵðҹҧ Ҩ繹˹ѡҵðҹ, ҵðҹ ҵðҹ 觵ͧº§ҡкͧѵ¹͡

Էʵѹ͡ ¡֡ҨҡŧҹͧѧҨ ҹӤѭͧ ǧ Ѵ ͧͧšѵ աººҴͧê ǧ Ѵ ͧѵǡѹ չ¢ͧسФᵡҧ͡ 繡觶֧ԧͧҵšѵǹ ͹ѹ ͸Ժ¸ҵᵡҧѹ

֡ҾѲҡâͧк˹мšзѧ, ֡ѧһʡա Сººس Ф¨ҡѧһ ʡա ѺԷʵѹšѨغѹ ֧繧ҹѡ㹺֡ҹ ͹ШҡԻѭҳ繷ҧͧ͡ԷʵšѨغѹ

֡ҾѲҡâͧк˹мšзѧ
͹Ѻ¸ҳҹ ѡѺѵ觢ͧ ѵ§ ¡ùѺ ҡѲ繡ùѺ¡͹Թ âǴ͡ âմѡ ºҺŹŨҡõԴͤҢ ͧաºº ͡š¹ С ͡ҡ ѧա÷ӻԷԹ ҧҵǡѺԴ ˹¨֧ǢͧѹѺùѺ դ繵͡á˹ѹ

ҢͧҵѴ
ҵҡѴؤá ФԴºҨҡҧ¢ͧ ٹҧ㹡Ѵ ҧ繵º ¡˹ҧ (Body units) ͨҡ (digit) 繽 (palms) ͤ͡ҧͧǷ§ԴԴѹ ҡ͡ҧǢ͡ Ѵҡ¹ ѧ¹ǡ ¡ ׺ (span) ׺Ѵᢹҡ¹ǡҧѧ͡ ¡ ͡ (cubit) дѴǹͧҧ쾺 ٧ͧ (stature) ҡѺ͡ ѧҡѺҧҧᢹͧ͡ҧ 蹤 ǷҡѴҡ¹ǡҧ ҹѧ¹ǡҧҨդһҳҡѺ٧ͧ鹹ͧ ˵عöҤѹͧеҧ ºҡͧ ժͨҡТͧͧ˹ Դ§еҧ

4 (digit) 1 (palm)
3 (palm) 1 ׺ (span)
2 ׺ (span) 1 ͡ (cubit)
4 ͡ (cubit) 1 ٧ͧ (stature)
зҧᢹ´ͧ͡ҧ

§ͧ˹·ͧǷǢͧҧѺԨͧ ˹ ؤ֧ѡɳѵ (subjective) ºҨҡ

͡ҡ êеǧѧѹѺǷش ѹ Т͸ѭʹѧǹӤѭͧѴҧ´֡ŧ仨ҡҧ¢ͧա ê觵ǧѴһҳ ТҴж蹰ҹ դᵡҧѹ͡仵ҡ¢ͧתѹѭù ѧҳǺ (barleycorn) 繵Ѵ ੾еҧͧҹ 㹷ͧǡѹҧҹҧѹᵡҧѹ ѧЪ˹ 觡˹׺ʹ͡ѹ繻ླ ¡ "˹µԸջླ" "˹µླ" (Customary units) Ҩѹ Ի ա Թ ˹·Ѵҡҧ ˹µԸջླ ١ѹѺԶժԵؤɵḠҧ

ء¸ ෤ԤѴ§͵ͤ㹢й աԺԴ š¹ѹҧ¸ ¸㴢µ ԷԾŤͺͧҳҺdzҡ 㹡˹ҵðҹ (Standard units) ҡ ҡºѴШҡҴͧҧ ö㹡÷ӧҹҢͧѵ§, 繵Ѵ鹷 ͹Թ繵Ѵ˹ѡ Ƿ繵 ºѴһҵ ¹

кԡؤԷʵصˡ
áؤԷʵصˡ Դ鹢ͧкع (the rise of Capitalism) кüԵШ˹駡š¹ԹҷԴѧûѵԷҧä (The Commercial Revolution) 㹤ʵȵɷ 16û ԷԾ㹡á˹ҷͧԷʵԹͧâͧкͺع öѲҤ´ӢͧѴ仾 ѺûѺ¹¢ͧ˹ŧͧкǡѹ 㹷شû٭¤ҡ¢ͧ˹µԸջླ

ͻ .. 2334 (.. 1791) 繵 ѡԷʵԴѲкԡ (metric) ж֧Ѻ кԡ кҵðҹ·ش ҧ´˵ؼ 2 С

1. кͧŢҹԺ ¶֧ Ҩҡ˹˹觢 Ŵŧա˹˹觹 ¢Ҵͧ 10 蹨ҡ ˹ 10 ǹ ¡ ഫ ഫ 10 ǹ ¡ǹ ૹ 㹢зкͧ˹µԸջླչյŢ͹ʴѹ ¹仵Ҵͧ觹 ҡ 4 1 3 ֧ 1 ׺ 4 1 ׺ С 4 ׺ 1 ͡ 繵

2. кԡ˹¾鹰ҹ (Basic unit) § 7 ˹¾鹰ҹҹ 㹢з˹µԸջླҡ 20 ˹¾鹰ҹ Ѻ 7 ˹¾鹰ҹͧкԡ

2.1 (meter) ˹¾鹰ҹͧ
2.2 š (kilogram) ˹¾鹰ҹͧ
2.3 Թҷ* (second) ˹¾鹰ҹͧ [* "Թҷ" Ѩغѹ 繤Ţͧ "second" ԧ շҷᵡҧѹҧҡ ҧ "Թҷ" Ѻ "second" ҡк˹㹨ѡ̷ջ ѳ 6 ͧѧҨ 1 Թҷ (Թҷԡ) ҳҡѺ 24 seconds ѧǵ]
2.4 Թ (kelvin) (Celsius) ˹¾鹰ҹͧس
2.5 (ampere) ˹¾鹰ҹͧ 俿
2.6 (mole) ˹¾鹰ҹͧҳ㹻ԡ
2.7 ᤹ (candela) ˹¾鹰ҹͧҳ ͧͧҧ

͡ҡ˹¾鹰ҹ 7 ѧ˹ (Supplementary units) ˹ѴйҺ ¡¹ (radian) ˹Ѵѹ ¡ ʵ¹ (steradian) 駹˹·Դ鹨ҡù˹¾鹰ҹ˹һСͺѹ ¡˹͹ؾѹ (Derived units) ˹¢ͧǫ觻Сͺ仴˹¢ͧзҧ Ѻ˹¢ͧ 繵 ҹкäԴдǡ㹡ë͢š¹ҡ觢

ࡳҵðҹ¹¹
;Ѳҡ÷ҧѧؤͧ顮ҵðҹҧصˡ㹡ë͢Թ 觷ѡɳ੾ ͧ˹¡¤ ҡѹ§ͧҧѵ觢ͧҧ ҡ觷繡Ҿͧࡳҵðҹҡ¹͡ ѡɳ੾Тͧؤصˡ鹤ӹҭ੾дҹ µҧ ѹ¡ШҢԪҵҧ ҧҡ§ѹ

ѧҧ ˹¾鹰ҹͧзҧ meter ѴҴ͡Ҩҡ 件֧觷˭ҵͧº§ҡѺš ǤԴѡ 1 зҧ˹Ժҹǹͧзҧҡٹٵѧš ˹Ժҹǹͧзҧ˹ͧͺǧͧš ѧ .. 2335 - 2341 Me'chain Delambre Ѵзҧҧͧ Dunkirk Ѻ Barcelona Ǥӹdzͺǧͧš 繵ҧԧ˹ 1 蹤ѧդѹԧͧѺš¹

⹷ȹǡѺá¹ зҧ 1 ԧѺࡳҵðҹ Ҵ仨ҡҹԴ ¡˹ 1 դҡѺ platinum-iridium alloy ǹͧ platinum 90% iridium 10% ˹ҵѴٻ X 1 зѴҡմ 2 ҧͧҵðҹ س 0 ͧ ж ҵðҹҡŢͧ 1 (International Prototype Metre) ѡӹѡҵðҹ ǧ Ѵ ҧ (International Bureau of Weight and Measures)ͧ (Severes)اʻȽ 繵ҵðҹºҴ 1 âͧȵҧ š

Ҥ¹ա Ǥ ´ҡ觢 ֧¹ºѺ´ͧǪǧ(wavelength)ͧʧ 蹤աá˹ (re-define) 1 դҡѺ 1,650,763.73 ͧǪǧ ͧеͧҵ krypton (Kr) 觶͡ѹ٧ҡ з觷Ҵ͹§ ˹ҹǹҹ

͹Ҥ 1983 (2526) meter ١¹ա 1 meter зҧʧԹҧحҡ 1 299,792,458 second ԴҡѴʧӢ դ 299,792,458 meter second حҡ

¹ŧ¢ͧӹ˹¹ ʴ繶֧šȹ¹仢ͧ ҡؤɵáصˡ ͹ͧ meter ¹ ¡ҧ͡仨ҡѹͧТҴͧš

meter 㹤ҨҡеԹ metrum, Ҩҡ ҡա metron Ѵ (measure) Ҩҡ Old French metre ·㨷仡ͧͧͧѴ kilometer, barometer ѧ¶֧ؤżѴ ҡѾ Anglo-Saxon Ҩҡ metan to measure ͡ҡѧդͧͧú͡ѧŧ ŧ ѹ Ҿ ͹ ҵҺ͡ѧ ͡Դ 繪ǧ ѹѺ֡֡Դ ͧ 㹢з¢ͧô¹ͧǪǧ蹹鹷Թҡôҹͧ繤ǹѹ

˹¢ͧ ǡѹ gram ҡѾҨҡҽ gramme ҨҡеԹ gramma ˹ѡ ҡաͤ graphein ¶֧觷¹ Ҵ telegram gram ١Ѵ˹¾鹰ҹͧ˹ѡ (Basic Unit of Weight) к metric ˹繢͵ŧ բҴҡѺ˹㹾ѹǹͧŢͧ platinum ٻçк͡ platinum ջҵ 1000 ҢͧӺطس 4 ͧ 㹢зҵðҹѧ˹ 㹻 .. 2432 աá˹ҵðҹ International Prototype kilogram 觽 ҧšҵðҹ ҡ platinum-iridium ǡѺҵðҹ 颹Ҵ٧ͧм٧ҡѺ鹼ٹҧͧçк͡ ҵðҹҧ 1 š

¢ͧ gram ͧͧԷʵ繤¢ͧ platinum ҵðҹǡѺͧͧ÷¶֧ platinum-iridium

׺Ҥ ԵԷҧǺѹҡѺԵԷҧҾ ҹҧ¢ͧ˹¹ ǧࡳҵðҹҡ¹͡ ʺ٧ աкɰԨؤ觢ѹѨغѹ ͧࡳҵðҹҡ觢 õդҤ Ͷͧ͢Թ ѵҡš¹ 䡷ҧѧҹǹкѴҧ੾ࡳҵðҹҡ¹͡Ӥѭ ԵԷҧ ҧ¡ѧ§ҡšҶ֧ͧ仨ҡ֡֡Դͧѧ

駹ͧ Ũҡ㹡õԴͤҢҧȵʹԷԾŷҧԴͺ价 Ѱҧ ͧѺǵ㹵ѹԴ鹢ͧԷʵͧ ͧҹö§Ѵ駻Ѻ¹ٻẺҧ աûЪҹҪҵ¤㹡ǧС˹ࡳҵðҹ 繡ûѺ¹仵ӴѺԴѧѹͧͧ ᵡҧҡ¹ŧѧ

ҵҪ ǧ Ѵ ͧ¡Ѻкԡ
Ѻ¹ ԴѺԴͤҢ¡ѺҧҵҪҹҹ С觤¹ŧԴҧٻ վҪѭѵ ҵ ǧ Ѵ طѡҪ 2466 Ѫŷ ˡ ºѹ֡˵㹤ӻ

"ҪҳҨѡҹ Ը ǧ Ѵ ҹٻ 觡˹ҵ кѭѵ繡èԸ 蹷ǹ" 1111111 "͹Ը ǧ Ѵ ͧ¹ ͹ Ը觹ҹһ شѺʧ ҪҳҨѡ Ըԡ鹻ҡѹ"

"֧Ը ǧ Ѵ ͧԸԡ Ѻӹǹ˹·繻ླպҧҧ ѴŧԸԡǹ" "ҡ軯ԺѵԵդԴ"

㹾ҪѭѵԩѺ ʴ§ҧ "Ըջླ" Ѻ "Ըԡ" º ¨Т¡ ͧ ˹¤, ˹觴Ҿ (Surface) ͷ¡Ҿ鹷, ˹觻ҵ, ˹ ˹¤ ѧ

㹺ӹǹ˹¢ͧҪѭѵ ҵ 9 ͡
"Ũӹǹ˹觤ǹ ҧٹͧͧ鹺觻ҵԹ Դ ҷ˹͹͢մ ӹѡҹҵ ǧ Ѵ ͧҹһ Ы觷Ъ˭áҵ ǧ Ѵ СẺжҵҢͧ Ѻ ù ͤǫӹѡҹ ҵ ǧ Ѵ ͧҹһȷӢ ˹Ẻ ҵ ѺͧҶ١ͧ ӹǹ˹µ 觤繴ѧ仹"

ҡ 㹾Ҫѭѵԡк Ըԡ ҡѺ ѹ ѡ .. ҡ Ρ ത, , ഫ, ૹ, Ԥ͹ѵ˹¢ͧ ѡ º "Ըջླ" Ѻ "Ըԡ"

" ҡѺ Ժ ѡ ..
ҡѺ ͧ ѡ .
͡ ҡѺ ˹觢ͧ ѡ .
׺ ҡѺ ˹ͧ˹ ѡ ."

ҵ 10 Ƕ֧ Ũӹǹ˹觴Ҥ (Surface)

"Ũӹǹ˹觴Ҥ (Surface) 繵ҧ մҹҧҹǴҹ˹ ¡ "ҧ"㹨ӹǹ˹µ觴Ҥ ѧ仹"

ҡ 㹾Ҫѭѵԡк "Ըԡ" ҧ ҡѺ ҹҧ ҧΡ Ρ ҡѺ 蹵ҧ Ҩ֧ ҧ ҡѺ ˹ҹͧ˹µҧѡ ..2 繵

ºѺԸջླ
" ҡѺ ѹˡµҧ ѡ .
ҹ ҡѺ µҧ ѡ .
ҧ ҡѺ ҧ ѡ 2."

Ѻҵù ҵҵҤ ҵ 11
"Ũӹǹ˹ ٻ١ȡ մҹ ٧ҹ ˹ ¡ "١ȡ" ӹǹ˹µ 繴ѧ仹"

ҡ鹡к Ըԡ ١ȡѵҡѺѹҹ١ȡ ١ȡΡ ҡѺ ҹ١ȡ¨֧١ȡૹ ҡѺ ˹㹾ѹͧ˹١ȡૹ 繷ѧࡵҵ 11 Ըջླк

ҵ 12 Ƕ֧
"Ũӹǹ˹ (¡ѹҹ˹ѡ) š ʢͧ觡觻ҵԹ Դ ӹѡҹ ҵҪ ǧ Ѵ ͧҹһ Ы觷Ъ˭á ҵ ǧ Ѵ СẺжҵҢͧš Ѻ š ӹѡҹ ҵҪ ǧ Ѵ ͧҹһӢ ˹ẺҵѺͧҶ١ͧ ӹǹ˹µ繴ѧ仹"

ҡ鹾ҪѭѵԡǶ֧ Ըԡ
"ԡѹ ҡѺ ѹš
ԡԹѹ ҡѺ ¡š
š ҡѺ Ũӹǹ˹
Ρⵡ ҡѺ ¡
തҡ ҡѺ Ժ §ŧҨ֧
á ҡѺ ˹㹾ѹͧ˹ԡ"

¶֧Ըջླշº§
"Һǧ ҡѺ ˡԺš ѡ .
ǧ ҡѺ ˡ¡ ѡ .
ѵǧ ҡѺ Ժૹԡ ѡ ..
ѵǧ ԡѵ Ѻդҹ"

شҴͧͧ 駢ͧТͧ駹ҵ 13
"Ũӹǹ˹觤Ѻѵ ѵ駹 Ե Ҵͧ ͧӺط (Ȩҡҡ) ˹ѡ˹觡š ҷ˹͹͢մ 4 աૹԡҴ դͧҡҧ ӹǹ˹µ觤繴ѧ仹"

ҡ Ƕ֧Ըԡ
"Ե ҡѺ ѹԵ
ΡԵ ҡѺ Ե
തԵ ҡѺ ԺԵ
Ե Ũӹǹ˹ Ҩ֧Ե ҡѺ ˹㹾ѹ ˹Ե"

СǶ֧Ըջླ
"¹ǧ ҡѺ ͧѹԵ ѡ ..
ǧ ҡѺ ѹԵ ѡ .
Ѵǧ ҡѺ ԺԵ ѡ .
ҹǧ ҡѺ ˹Ե ѡ ."

"ѺѭԨ駻ǧҨ Ե ҡѺ١ȡ ԵҡѺ ١ȡഫ ҡѺ ١ȡૹ"

ѡҹҡҪѭѵҵ ǧ Ѵ طѡҪ 2466 ¡Ңҧ ˵آͧûѺ¹ҡҵ ǧ Ѵ кҵðҹҡ Ըԡ繷 ѺѺͧ¡ 㹷ͧ蹪ͧѧԸջླҧ ŧ价ء ÷ҵѴԸջླդ 仹 ˵Ӥѭسԧͧͧҧѵзҷյͧ͡ѵؤ 仨ҡšȹͧѧ

ҵҳͧ* Ӥѭŧ
[*ح˹ ͹ ѧһʡóЮա : õǨС֡ԧ ԷҹԾѡʵҺѳԵ ҤԪҵѹ͡ ŧóԷ 2523.˹ 288-230]

1. ҵѴ
8 ҳ 1 ͳ
5 ͳ 1 **
8 鹼 1
8 1
8 1 索
8 索 1
12 1 ׺
2 ׺ 1 ͡
4 ͡ 1
20 1
400 1 ª
**ҵѴз¡ҨҡԷҹԾҧ鹹 ͨҡ 5 ͳ 1 Ҩ 8 1 鹼 ֧еʹ 8 鹼 1 㹷餧鹩Ѻ¡]

2. ҵҵǧ
150 索 1 Ժ
4 Ժ 1
4 1
2 1 ͺ
4 ͺ 1 йҹ
25 йҹ 1 Ѵ
80 Ѵ 1 ¹

աẺ˹
150 索 1
4 1
8 1 ѧ͹
2 ѧ͹ 1
2 1 йҹ
20 йҹ 1 ѧ
50 ѧ 1
2 1 ¹

3. ҵҪ觹˹ѡ
2 1
2 1
4 1 ͧ
2 ͧ 1 ֧
4 ֧ 1 ҷ
4 ҷ 1 ֧
20 ֧ 1
20 1 ع (, )
20 ع 1

4. ҵԹ
10 1
5 1 ʾ
2 ʾ 1 Ѱ
2 Ѱ 1 ()
2 () 1 ա
2 ա 1 ͧ
2 ͧ 1 ֧
4 ֧ 1 ҷ
4 ҷ 1 ֧
20 ֧ 1

Ҽҹͺȵɷ餹¡Ѻкͧ ֡͡ ͹кԡʶһҢѧ¹ кê ǧ Ѵҧ դҧ ੾ԵԷҧ§˹ҹ Դس ҧ㹻ѨغѹҨФԴ֧Ըѭ ҡ оطʹҹ Ԩóҧҧҧ ҷҵǨͺ ǧ Тشôҧѭҹ ҧդšиҵ ҹ˹ ҧ١ͧ繨ԧͧѨ ЪԴѭҧäѺšѨغѹ ˹㹼ŧҹ ͧѧҨ йسдѧ ѧһʡա ͺ»

ҹʴҵҡùѺ ͸Ժ¢¤ҡѧһʻó ͧ Эҳ Ƕ֧ҵѴ ҵҵǧ ҵҪ кùѺ觢ͧ ҵԹ СùѺҴͧšһ ǺҨҡ дǡ㹡è ¶ͧ繷ҧԹ 觷ʧǢͧѹѺѧ㹰ҹͧ˹ѹ ŧҹͧҡ˹¹ѺԸջླբͧ ѧͧѡҹҡ ¡˹¤ ҷ㹻Ѩغѹ Һ ӹ鹨ԧ 繤¡ӹǹѺդ͹ҡ͹ ֡֡ŧ件֧â¤ͧѧҨ 龺·§ѹѹҡ觡ҡ Body units ҡ "˹" ҧȨ ˵ع֡ŧҹͧѧҨ ֧ͧӤѭШ

ѧҨѧһʡա
ѧһʡա 繼ŧҹѹѺ 3 㹺ôҼŧҹ 4 ͧ ͧѧҨ赡ʹҶ֧ǡ㹻Ѩغѹ ŧҹ 4 ͧ

1. ѹ÷ջ (.. 2060)
2. ѡ̷ջ (.. 2063)
3. ѧһʡա (.. 2063)
4. ѧѵջ (.. 2067)

㹺ôҧҹ 4 鹹 ѧѵջ Ѻ繼ŧҹ͡ ѡѹҡش ੾ͤʧ ѺѵԹ쨹֧Ѩغѹ ˹ѧѵջ 繤˹ѡٵûѵԸ Ἱշԡ ͧ֡ ŧҹ鹹ͧѧҨ١֡ йҧҧҧطѷ

ⴴ˭ͧѧѵջ ͹Ҩзŧҹ Ŵ˭ŧ աáǶ֧ŧҹͧѧҨ ѡáǶ֧ѧѵջҹ мŧҹ鹹ǡͨлШѡ㹤˭ͧҢͧŧҹ 㹤繨ԧ ŧҹء鹢ͧѧҨ ǹʴ繶֧˭㹤繻ҪҧطʹҢͧèᵡҧѹ͡

ҹЪ鹢ͧѧҨ ҧз͹繶֧ͺ֡ ѹԻѭѹ§觶֧繨ԧ (Realisation) š ͡ (Enlightenment) 觾طʹҷ觡Ԩ駻ǧǹ觵çᷧʹ繨ԧ ͡ôѺءԧ

ѧһʡա ǹ˹觼ŧҹз͹繶֧֡ ԻѭҢͧѧҨ 繼Ҩҡ֡лԺѵԵѡ͹㹾оطʹҧԧѧ ʴ͡ҡ繼ŧҹ ѹѺôҧԻѭҷ赡ʹҶ֧ǡҷء ؤѨغѹ

Ӥѭͧѧһʡա
ѧһʡա 繼ŧҹͧҨҡѡ̷ջ 蹤 ѧҨ èҨѡ̷ջը㹻 .. 2063 ҹè ѧһʯաҵͷѹ㹻ǡѹͧ ͹Ҩѹɰҹ 2 С

С÷˹ ѧҨդԴǧ˹Ҩèѧһʡա ͨҡѡ̷ջ ֡ҧҹͧҹѧһʡա繤㹡÷Ӥ㨤µҧ ʴ㹨ѡ̷ջ

աС˹ Ҩ ҹդԴ͹ҨèҤǡѺѧ (á˹ѺٻẺҧ) 袳ͷҹè ѡ̷ջչ ҹ龺ѭҷԴ鹨ҡѴਹͧ˹¹Ѻҧ ҡ㹤ҧ դѴਹ բᵡҧСԴͺŧʧ֡ 駤ѧһʡó ͧЭҳ 觷ҹ繤㹡ʴµҧ 㹨ѡ̷ջ 繧ҹԾ¡ͧСͺ¢ͤ ѹ繻ѭҵͼ֡ҷ ҡѭҹ֧ ѧҨèҤѧһʡաҵͨҡѡ̷ջշѹ

繨ԧ繻С㴡 ŧҹҡʴ è֡㨶֧觤繨ԧͧ -š-ѡ ֡Ҩеͧդ Ф˹¡ùѺҧ ҧ ѧһʡա ֧١èҢͻª֡Ҿоطʹ ͤóԪҡѹ繤سٻ ͡ҧʵԻѭҢͧЪҪ·

ѧһʡա Ҩ繼ŧҹ ͹º§ѺŧҹͧѧҨ Ҽŧҹ 鹹Դó˭Ҿ觧ҹͧҹ

͹Ҽŧҹ 4 ͧѧҨҧ§ѹ Ҿҡʹ 蹤 ǧ 8 ҹطҧäŧҹҧطʹҹ ҹЪ鹢ͧҹӴѺ觤·ͧ觾طʹ

ѧҨҹԾͧҹ¸ѹͧ ҡҹӤѭ㹡ҧäѧǾط

ҹ˹㹡кǹáһѨਡҡѹѧ ԸաЪҪҶ֧س觨¸ͧǾط ͡ùʹѡ ¸ҹҴ

ҹҧطʹҷ仵ҧѺѹ㹺ôҡкǹùʹЪҪҶ֧ѡ鹰ҹ㹾оطʹҹ ԸաẺҴ Ըա˹觷ҧ٧ ͧǵҧ ͡ҼҹҴ ҡѧ֡㹨Եӹ֡ͧǾطҧṺЧ

طʹẺҷѲԸաẺҴҧ ʹͧѺҾѧ Ѳ ͧзͧ طʹҹͧʺ㹡ҴԸաùʹѡ͹ͧطʹ ЪҪ зդҴ͡Ժҵҹ

ѧҨèѹ÷ջբ͵ͺʹͧͧâͧѧͧáһЪҪ͡㹨¸ͷҴ·ҹ

Թԧ仡ѧҨС ͺ չ㨢ͧҤ˹ͷҡͼ͹ ͡觷ҹ͡㨢ͧҤ˹Ҫҹҹ ҡҹӤѭͧ¸ҡѧ֡㹨Եӹ֡ͧҤ˹ ѡ͹㹾оطʹҷҴ·ҹ й鹡¤ ѹ÷ջ ͧѧҨ ǹ˹觤͡㹷ҧ¸ͧЪҪѺôҨҡþɫѺáҴ§ҹԾͧѧҨ

ѹ÷ջ ֧繧ҹҧä¸ Ÿѧ

ҡ¸ѹͧҧҪԡѧо֧ԺѵԵ͡ѹ ѹآѹ ѧҨ ͧ繨ԧͧ-š Шѡ ҧšȹ ЪǷȹѹ͡ŵ͡ûоĵԻԺѵԵǷҧ觾طʹ

ѡ̷ջ èҢʴ觤繨ԧͧšШѡ̷ФѧǷʹԹ·֧ö šШѡѹҧ˭ ͧ§ҷ (Perceive) ҹ ͧá˹·١ͧ͡觶֧¨Ե (Conceive) èҶ֧繨ԧšШѡ̨֧ͧСͺ⹷ȹآ´ ҧкǹȹѹö觶֧繨ԧšШѡ кǹá˹ѺҧҡͧѴਹ д¤ѧҧѴਹ㹡á˹Ѻ㹻ѡɳеҧ ѧһʮա ֧١èҢ

駨ѡ̷ջ ѧһʡա ֧ըشѧѹҶ֧繨ԧš ШѡԴ觶֧繨ԧ (Realisation) 繡 ѹءͧ仵 д¡Ҷ֧觤繨ԧ ǻԺѵʹͧѺ繨ԧҹ ֧öԹԵѹآҧ

èҨѡ̷ջ ѧһʡա ʴ觤繨ԧͧ -š-ѡ ѧҨ ֧Ҷ֧èҧҹӤѭ ʴԶ觪ԵǾط֧Թ ҡش·ش 繾鹰ҹ

٧ش觪ԵͨԵѹ йԾҹ ԶժԵѹ԰ѧǹʹ㹼ŧҹѧѵջ §ͧѧҨҡªͧ͢ҪҧطʹҷǾطšҧѡЪ蹪㹼ŧҹͧҹ

ͧͧººѺҹ ͧҹ ѧһʡա 觶١ͧҹʹѡͤ͸Ժѡµç ҡͧҹͧѧҨͻԹҼŧҹͧҹҧͺҹ֡ѧһʡաҨǹ Դó˭ ѧ繡ʴ繶֧ʹҧŢͧè ʴ֧Իѭҷ֡ ͧѡҪҧطʹҷҹҷҹ繻Ҫ੾зҧطʹҺطҹ ҹѧç㹷ҧš ؤ㹢й ֧ҴöèҧҹʴҵҡùѺкó 駻Сͺ¹¤·͡ŵͷҧԺѵԵ觾طʹ

Ӥѭͧѧһʡա
ͧҡ ѧһʡա 繧ҹԾ͸Ժ¢¤ ѧһʡóͧЭҳ ֡ͷӤѧһʡաҨ֧ͧ令Ǻ仡Ѻ֡ѧһʡó

ѧһʡó ѧһʡա
ѧһʡó 繻óҺջ¡ͧ Сͺ¤Ҷ 73 Ҷ èҢ ԡت Эҳ

Ңͧѧһʡó Ҵ¡äӹǹѺѡɳеҧѹ 6 ҵҹѺ
1. ѷѧ ҵѴзҧ
2. ѭѧ ҵҵǧ觢ͧ
3. ҳѧ ҵҪ觢ͧ
4. ѳѧ кùѺӹǹ
5. ѳѧ ҵҹѺԹ
6. šһѧ ùѺŤСá˹Ҵͧ šһ

á˹Ѻ 6 Эҳ оѹ¡ͧ 觻дѺдҴ©ѹѡɳ觵ѹ ਵҢͧоѹͧ֡ѧһʡó ֡Ըշͧ ҵҹѺҧ ͡ùҧдǡ ͹÷ͧٵäٳͧѡ¹㹻Ѩغѹ ШشʧԴдǡ㹡÷ͧ Эҳʨ֧оѹҹ鹹¡ͧ ͷѡ֡Һѡѹ㹪 оѹ繤Ҷ

ûоѹ繤Ҷҹ鹧µ͡èӡԧդҡ㹡֡ Чҹоѹ繤Ҷҵͧբͤ ЪѺ 觩ѹѡɳ ÷١˹¡觩ѹѡɳ оѹö͸Ժ¢¤´

ѧҨ ֡ҧҹͧЭҳǤͻѭ㹡õդ 繶֧ҡԴ֡ҷ ҹ֧è ѧһʡաҢ ͸Ժ¢¤ѧһʡó

ԧ ѧҨ¡ͧҹͧҹ ѧһʡա ҹ¡ ѧһʡó ͹ҹͧЭҳ зҹ˹ѡɳЧҹͧҹ繧ҹ "öó" (һʡóڶdzڳ) ҹѡ֡Һչ¡ͧҹͧѧҨ ѧһʡա 駹餧˵ؼѡ 2 С

1. ͧҹͧѧҨӡѺҹͧЭҳ
2. ҹͧѧҨ繧ҹ͸Ժ¢¤ (öó) ҹա˹

觧ҹѡɳй繡͸Ժ¢¤ طǨ ¡ "ö" Чҹ͸Ժ¢¤ö ¡ "ա" ͧҹͧЭҳ (͸Ժ¾طǨ) ֧Ѵ㹻ա ˵ع֧¡ ѧһʡա (㹺鹹֧ ѧһʡա 繪ͧҹͧѧҨ)

ѧһʡա ͧѧҨ 繧ҹԾҺ ͸Ժ¢¤ѧһʡó 繧ҹоѹ¡ͧ ͸Ժ¨繡͸Ժ仵ӴѺФҶ

ѡɳ觡͸Ժ 价͸ԺѾͷѡ¡ Ѿ ͸Ժ¤͢¤ աԨóҾҢͤǹ ͧó ʹ¡ͤҡ ººСͺ ҺػѴਹ

֡ѧһʡաҢͧѧҨ ֧ͧ令ǺѺѧһʡó ͧЭҳ ¶ͧҹͧЭҳѡ ҹͧѧҨǹ͸Ժ¤

ͧ͢ѧһʡó ѧһʡա

1. ѷѧ (ҵѴ)
36 ҳ 1 ͳ
36 ͳ 1 Ѫ
36 Ѫ 1 öó
36 öó 1 ԡ ()
7 ԡ 1 ١ ()
7 ١ 1 ѭ
7 ѭ 1 ѧ ()
12 ѧ 1 Էѵ (׺)
2 Էѵ 1 ѵ (͡)
4 ѵ 1 ()
25 1
80 1 ص
4 ص 1 ª (ª)

͡ҡ ѧաʴҵҹѺբᵡҧѹ㹪¡ա 8 Ẻ ҡ ѵ ֧ ص ѧǹҴ¤µ

2. ѭѧ (ҵҵǧ)
4 د 1 ر
4 ر 1 ѵ
4 ѵ 1 ˡ
4 ˡ 1 ⷳ
4 ⷳ 1 ҳԡ
4 ҳԡ 1
20 1

աẺ˹
4 د 1 ر
4 ر 1 ѵ
4 ѵ 1 ˡ
4 ˡ 1 ⷳ
4 ⷳ 1
4 1

3. ҳѧ (ҵҪ)
4 1 ح
2 ح 1 ʡ
5 ʡ 2 ѡ
8 ѡ 1 ó
5 ó 1 ѳ
5 ѳ 1 ԡ
0.4 ԡ 1
100 1
20 1
10 1 ʡ (¹)

աẺ˹
4 1 ح
2 ح 1 ʡ
2.5 ʡ 1 ѡ
8 ѡ 1 ó
10 ó 1
100 1
20 1
10 1 ʡ (¹)

4. ѳѧ (кùѺ)
͡ = 1
= 10
ʵ = 100
= 1,000
ص = 10,000
ѡ = 100,000
ʵ = 1,000,000
⡯ = 10,000,000
⡯ = 100,000,000
⡯Ի⡯ = 1,000,000,000
ص = 10,000,000,000
Թص = 100,000,000,000
ѡԹ = 1,000,000,000,000
Թ = 10,000,000,000,000
Ѿط = 100,000,000,000,000
Ѿط = 1,000,000,000,000,000
; = 10,000,000,000,000,000
ͯ = 100,000,000,000,000,000
= 1,000,000,000,000,000,000
ط = 10,000,000,000,000,000,000
ʤѹԡ = 100,000,000,000,000,000,000
ػ = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
سա = 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
= 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
ҹ = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
ҡҹ = 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
ѧ = 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

кùѺԧٻẺ ЭҳʡǢᵡҧҹ§ ǹѧҨ͸Ժ¢ᵡҧ´¡ҧСͺҡҧ ֡㨤 ੾С¡ҧԴԹҡ㹨ӹǹ ҧ͸Ժ¤¢ͧ ӹǹ "ѡԹ"

ѧҨ͸Ժ¢¤ ѡԹ ͸Ժ¤ ҡ ˹ӹǹ ùѺӹǹ ͸Ժ¤ ҡ Ѻӹǹ ҹ¡ҧʴ ѵä

" 60 Ѵ Ѵ 60 ١ʹҷѧ͹ º蹻 ʹ蹹 ѡԹ"

Ƿҹ͸Ժ¤ػ ʹҷöº 60 Ѵ Ѵ 60 š´蹻 Թºҹ ж١¡ ʹҷըӹǹҡ ѡԹ

ǹ ѡԹ ¶֧á˹ӹǹѺ͹ ҹ¡ҧѤǧҨ ѷյԻó

"ҧ 900 ͡ ͡ö 100 ѹ öФѹ 100 еժ 100 Ф ˭ԧ 100 ҧ ˭ԧйҧշ 100 ӹǹ ѡԹ"

͡ҡ ҹѧ¡ҧҡ ͸Ժ¶֧ӹǹѺ ѡԹ ա

кùѺ¡ ѡԹ բ͹ѧࡵ աѹӹǹҳѧӡǷ "ҡѡ" ѡ Ҩҡ ѡԹ ͧ ӹǹѺѡѡԹ ӹǹ ˹ҹҹͧ աûЪѹ稷ҧɰԨöԹ͡˹仵ҧŤҶ֧˹ҹҹҷ ûЪѹ㹤駹ջѭͧҷͤ Фҹҹ 繤ӫӷԴѺʹ( ҹ ¡˹ҧҵ ¨ӹǹҹҹǡѹ) Тʹ㹷 ҵͧèդ¡ӹǹҹҹդ੾ʴӹǹ͹ Ҩ "ѡ" "ѡԹ"

5. ѳѧ (ҵԹ)
ѳѧ ҵԹͧԹ·㹤駾طҵ 㹤ҧͧطʹҨ֧բͤ觷Ƕ֧ҵԹͧԹ

6. šһҳѧ (á˹ŤйѺҴͧ šһ)
šһҳѧ кá˹ŤС˹Ҵͧšһ ԹҢͧ Թ

ѳѧ šһҳѧ ҵҡ˹ӹǹŤҢͧԹҢͧԹ դѹѺ͡˹ҧҧ㹾оطʹ 蹡óա˹ŤҢͧ觢ͧҡԡٻ㴶͢觢ͧ Ť 5 ʡ ТҴҡ繾ԡ㹾طʹҷѹ ѡɳдѧǹ ¢ͧҵԹͧԹ 繤繻ª͡ԹԨ¤觾Թ

͡ػ Թҷ˹ѺªԹ Эҳ оѧҨǺ͸Ժ մѧ

4 1 ح
2 ح 1 ʡ
5 ʡ 1 ҷ
4 ҷ 1 һ

㹡áǢ¤ǡѺšһ ͧ ѧҨ ͸ԺŤҢͧ觢ͧԡٻ㴶ҡ觡â ǢҴҡԡ ҧѴਹ ¶֧ Ť 5 ʡ 1 ҷ ͧ šһ 觤͹դ·Ѵਹ㹡á˹ºҢص㹻Ѩغѹ Ť 5 ʡ 1 ҷ դ

ѧҨբԹԨ Ť 1 ҷ ŤҡѺ ͧŤ˹ѡ 1 ҷ зͧչ˹ѡ 1 ҷ չ˹ѡҡѺ ͡ 20 Щй鹶ҵͧ÷Һ¢ͧŤ 1 ҷ㹾Թ¢ͷҾԡٻ㴢觢ͧŤ 1 ҷ Ҵҡ繾ԡع º§ҤҷͧӻѨغѹչ˹ѡҡѺ ͡ 20 紹ͧ

 

ԡҹ͹ 2 ͧͧ "ѧһʡա" Ǣ
"Ӥѭͧѧһʡա : سҵšѨغѹ"

˹áͧԷ§׹ I ѤҪԡ I úѭ

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